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1. Annual 'wellness visits'

Once you’ve had Medicare Part B coverage for a year, you’ll get what's called an annual wellness visit with your doctor, who will take routine measurements, such as your height, weight, blood pressure, and review your medical history.

You'll fill out a "Health Risk Assessment" questionnaire to identify risk factors — so you and your doctor can work on keeping you healthy.

Medicare says the appointments also can include "detection of any cognitive impairment." That means your physician will be on alert for signs of Alzheimer's or similar ailments.

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2. Disease screenings

Medicare covers screenings for numerous diseases as part of its preventive services.

Medicare will pay for testing to detect: HIV and other STDs; diabetes; glaucoma; breast and cervical cancer; colon and prostate cancer; and heart disease.

Patients with histories of smoking can get an annual lung cancer screening, and Medicare also covers annual screenings for depression and other behavioral health issues that are a concern for seniors.

3. Obesity counseling

Obesity causes many illnesses and can make frail older bodies much weaker.

Diabetes and heart disease rates skyrocket for those who are overweight or obese. Joint and bone diseases are easier to manage at healthy weight levels.

If you have a Body Mass Index (BMI) reading of 30 or more, Medicare will cover face-to-face counseling sessions in a primary care setting (like a doctor’s office) to help you bring your weight down to a healthier level.

More: How to get a free Fitbit from your insurer

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4. Help to quit smoking

If you're a smoker, Medicare can help you kick the habit.

Letting go can be tough, especially if you've been a lifetime smoker. To help you break your nicotine addiction, Medicare will pay for eight in-person counseling sessions per year.

But note that Medicare's drug coverage will not pay for stop-smoking products sold over the counter at drugstores, like nicotine patches, lozenges and gum.

5. Hearing exams

Basic Medicare usually won't pay for hearing aids or routine hearing tests.

But it may cover a hearing exam if your doctor says it's medically necessary.

Hearing is related to balance. When a senior is having balance issues, a physician may want to check the ears to see if there's an inner ear problem requiring medical treatment.

6. Hospice care

Hospice care comprises a host of treatments at the end of a person's life. Medicare will pay for a long list of hospice services, including nursing care, and grief and loss counseling for the patient and family.

Hospice coverage applies when a Medicare recipient has been given six months or less to live and has agreed to forgo further attempts at a cure.

Medicare-certified hospice care usually takes place where you already live — whether that be at home or in a nursing home. You can also receive hospice care in an inpatient facility. However, it’s important to note Medicare doesn’t cover your room and board, though it may pay for a short-term stay at a hospice facility if your hospice team determines you need that.

If you’re dealing with any other health issues not related to your terminal illness, that should also still be covered by Medicare. But the government’s Medicare site points out that’s fairly unusual. Once you select hospice care, the hospice benefit typically covers everything you need.

7. Counseling for alcohol problems

Much like smoking, alcohol abuse can have seriously negative effects on the wellness of an older person.

Medicare provides alcohol misuse screening and treatment free of charge. It covers one screening per year and up to four brief counseling sessions if the reviewing physician believes a patient needs help.

8. Special footwear for diabetes

One of the least-known Medicare benefits is its allowance for specialized shoes for people with diabetes.

The disease can cause poor or abnormal circulation in the feet, and a lack of proper treatment can result in the need for amputation. Another risk is diabetic neuropathy, which can damage nerve endings in the feet.

Diabetic footwear helps regulate circulation and reduce the danger of neuropathy. Medicare will pay for one pair of custom-molded shoes and inserts and a pair of extra-depth shoes if they're prescribed and provided by a podiatrist or other qualified health professional.

Your insurance will also cover another two pairs of inserts for your custom-molded shoes and three pairs of inserts for extra-depth shoes each calendar year.

9. Wheelchairs and scooters

Wheelchairs and mobility scooters are important tools to help those with debilitating conditions lead normal lives. Medicare will pick up the cost under certain circumstances.

The wheelchair or scooter must be considered medically necessary.

Your doctor would need to certify that you are unable to walk without difficulty. The physician would be required to write a prescription for the vehicle or wheelchair after giving you an exam.

10. A walk-in bathtub (maybe)

A walk-in tub can help those with joint problems or other issues that make climbing into a traditional bathtub difficult or impossible.

Medicare may help with the cost of a walk-in tub, even though the tubs are not on the list of "durable medical equipment" that Medicare will cover including wheelchairs, oxygen equipment and hospital beds.

In order for you to obtain coverage, your doctor would have to attest that a walk-in tub is an absolute medical necessity. Medicare wouldn't provide assistance upfront — after you buy the tub, you'd submit the bill for possible reimbursement. But there’s no guarantee that you’ll get your money back.

More: Compare your Medicare options in one place with Healthcare.com

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About the Author

Doug Whiteman

Doug Whiteman

Former Editor-in-Chief

Doug Whiteman was formerly the editor-in-chief of MoneyWise. He has been quoted by The Wall Street Journal, USA Today and CNBC.com and has been interviewed on Fox Business, CBS Radio and the syndicated TV show "First Business."

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