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The pitfalls of borrowing from your 401(k)

Early withdrawal penalties and taxes: One of the most immediate drawbacks of withdrawing from your 401(k) is the penalty. If you are under the age of 59½, you will incur a 10% early withdrawal penalty. Additionally, the withdrawn amount is subject to federal and state income taxes. This means that a significant portion of your savings could be lost to penalties and taxes before you even see a dime.

Loss of compound growth: Your 401(k) is designed to grow over time through the power of compound interest. By withdrawing funds, you not only lose the principal amount but also the potential growth that money could have generated — resulting in a substantially lower retirement fund when you need it the most.

Jeopardizing retirement security: Using your retirement savings for a home purchase can jeopardize your financial security in the long run. The money you save in a 401(k) is intended to support you during retirement, ensuring you have the means to live comfortably when you’re no longer working. Dipping into these funds prematurely can leave you with insufficient savings, leading to financial strain during your retirement years.

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What to do instead

Instead of tapping into your 401(k), consider these alternatives to finance your home purchase:

Wait, and save aggressively: Consider putting your plans on hold while you save, save, save. This could include cutting back on discretionary spending, taking on a side job, or setting up automatic transfers to a dedicated savings account.

Explore first-time home buyer programs: Many states and local governments offer programs designed to help first-time home buyers. These programs often provide down payment assistance, lower interest rates, or favorable loan terms. Research the options available in your area to see if you qualify.

Consider a piggyback loan: A piggyback loan, also known as an 80-10-10 loan, involves taking out a second mortgage to cover part of the down payment. This allows you to avoid private mortgage insurance (PMI) and can make homeownership more affordable. However, be sure to understand the terms and risks associated with taking on a second loan.

While the prospect of homeownership is exciting, it’s crucial to weigh the long-term consequences of tapping your 401(k). The immediate benefits may be far outweighed by the potential financial setbacks during retirement. By exploring alternative financing options and prioritizing your long-term financial health, you can achieve your dream of homeownership without jeopardizing your future security.


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Chris Clark Freelance Contributor

Chris Clark is freelance contributor with MoneyWise, based in Kansas City, Mo. He has written for numerous publications and spent 18 years as a reporter and editor with The Associated Press.


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